Iron deficiency is the common prevalent nutritional deficiency worldwide for women during the fertility period of age 20 to 45 and children 1 to 2 years. Although current treatments for iron deficiency anemia can be effective, they commonly fail in pediatric patients because they do not complete their treatment due to metallic taste. To overcome this, the medication should be developed in palatable taste, so that it will be tolerated better.
The normal serum level of iron in an adult is ranged from 55 to 160 microgram per decilitre. A decrease in the serum level of iron from the above range leads to iron deficiency. Iron deficiency is defined as a condition in which there are no mobilizable iron stores and in which signs of a compromised supply of iron to tissues. In the more severe stages, iron deficiency is associated with anemia. It adversely affects the behavior and the physical growth of infants and children. Iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy leads to an increase in perinatal risk for mothers and neonates and increases overall infant mortality and also leads to premature delivery. By the lab diagnosis, it affects the normal blood levels of hemoglobin due to the less oxygen-carrying compound in red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia is developed by excess loss of iron from the body and poor reabsorption as a result of either inadequate diet or intestinal pathology. In Siddha, literature anemia is called paandu. It is also called a venmai noi, velupu noi. Based on a Siddha’s literature sour and salt taste decreases the erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. Complication like hepatomegaly, tuberculosis, worm infestation leads to iron deficiency anemia as a secondary cause. Siddha pathology is divided into five types. They are vaadha paandu, pitha paandu, kaba paandu, thirithoda paandu and vida paandu. Except vida paandu all types of paandus are cured. Because the vida paandu is due to a food allergy that leads to pale skin, vomiting, cough, dyspnoea, dysentery, loss of taste, and edema in the body. This also leads to secondary complications like diabetes mellitus and asthma.
Materials and Methods
Madhulai is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub. It grows up to 6 to 10m. The whole plant of the Madhulai is used in the treatment of vomiting and diarrhea. The Madhulai fruit is like globular berries, with a lower hillock. The unripened fruit of Madhulai is used to cure dysentery and diarrhea. The fruit is used to cure nausea, vomiting, kabam, pitham, infertility, bitter taste, indigestion, fever, heartburns, and fatigue.  It contains mainly oxygen radical absorbents capacity (ORAC) for the effect of free radicals and also contains antioxidants like anthocyanins, polyphenols tannins as well as other substances such as vitamins and minerals.
The chemical constituents of Madhulai are thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin C, E, and K. The most predominant content is vitamin C which is used to support the absorption of iron in the intestine. It contains minerals such as calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc. Madhulai seed oil contains Punic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid.
Madhulai manapagu helps to maintain good health in pregnant ladies and the fetus in the intrauterine life. It increases the hemoglobin level in the blood. It is also used in the treatment of gestational hypertension. The presence of rich fiber contents helps in relieving constipation. Due to the sweetness, it decreases the elevated temperature in pregnant women. It helps in the strong implantation of the embryo during pregnancy time. It also protects the fetus from brain damage during intrauterine life.
Preparation of Madhulai manapagu:
Sugar candy – 3lb
Rosewater – 3lb
Madhulai charu – 1lb
Honey – 1lb
All these things are added together and boiled to get a syrup consistency. The dosage of Madhulai manapagu is 1 to 2 spoons 3 times /day. It is used to treat burning sensations in the palm and sole, paandu (anemia), and arusi (loss of taste sensation).
Preparation of Annabedhi (iron sulphate):
Annabedhi is prepared from a combination of iron and sulphuric acid. It is bitter in taste and easily soluble in water. It has antipyretic, astringent action along with many nutritive values. Annabedhi has a distinguishing power to dissolve the food into liquid form. It is used for treating piles, tumors, deep muscular pain, indigestion, ascites, and hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, dropsy, amenorrhoea, gonorrhea, fever, boils, intermittent fever, chronic cough, and worm infestation.
Purification of Annabedhi:
First Annabedhi is dissolved in water completely so that a small quantity of dilute sulphuric acid is added, mixed well, and filtered. The mixture is heated till it attains the consistency of dry salt.
Preparation of Annabedhi chendooram (Incinerated iron sulphate):
The Annabedhi chendooram was prepared by dissolving purified Annabedhi in lemon juice and kept for one day in sunlight. Then it was ground in a mortar, calcined, and dried in sunlight. Dried calcined Annabedhi was transferred to a mudpot closed with another suitable mudpot; sealed using a clay cloth and it is burnt with the help of cow dung cakes to get the chendooram. The dosage of Annabedhi chendooram is 65 to 130 mg as per Siddha literature.
Benefits of Madhulai Manapagu:
- Increases hemoglobin level in the blood.
- Maintains good health in pregnant ladies and the fetus in the intrauterine life.
- Helps in treating gestational hypertension.
- High fiber content relieves constipation.
- The sweetness reduces the temperature in pregnant women.
- Helps in the strong implantation of the embryo in the uterus.
- Prevents brain damage to the fetus.
- Treats burning sensation in the palm and sole.
- Treats tastelessness
- Treats Anorexia